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大棚猪舍的建设和管理 (中)

来源:猪译馆 2020-09-21 15:30:13| 查看:

 

 

译者的话:

“眼见他起高楼,眼见他宴宾客,眼见他.....”,咱们今天说的不是楼房养猪,倒是另外一种超级接地气养猪方式--大棚养猪。大棚养猪的优势明显:小快省--单体地块需求小、启动资金相对封闭猪舍更少、猪舍建筑成本低、建设周期很短、功能切换很容易(养猪-不养猪),劣势也同样显著:更多的劳力、垫料&饲料消耗多等。本文详尽地陈述、分析大棚猪舍与封闭猪舍在建筑、运营、维护、效益等方面并进行比对,在生猪养殖模式方面展示了另外的一种可能性,对于有限资本想快速进入生猪养殖行业的投资者,大棚猪舍养殖不失为最佳选择之一,但是否适用与中国或者自己, 视各自掌控的资源而定。大棚猪舍--此地风景颇有奇异之处, 有请观瞻.....

 

大棚猪舍的建设和管理 (中)

Managing Market Pigs in Hoop Structures (Part 2)

 

作者 Authors

1Mark S. Honeyman

2Frederick Wm. Koenig

1Jay D. Harmon

1Don C. Lay, Jr.

1James B. Kliebenstein

1Thomas L. Richard

3Michael C. Brumm

1爱荷华州立大学 Iowa State University

2美国中西部计划委员会 MidWest Plan Service

3内布拉斯加大学 University of Nebraska

 

审稿人 Reviewers

Eldridge R. Collins, Jr.,

弗吉尼亚理工学院和州立大学

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Don D. Jones

普渡大学 Purdue University

 

饲料和水

Feed and Water

 

大棚猪舍通常在混凝土区域采用自主采食进行饲喂在生长-育肥舍中,每5-10头猪需要一个采食位。一个能容纳180-200头猪的大棚猪舍里,需要2-312个采食位的自由采食料槽,和一个4个饮水位的防冻饮水器。夏季需要额外的饮水位,可以多加一个或几个乳头式饮水器。

Hoop structures usually use self-feeders placed on the concrete area. In a grow-finish operation, provide a feeder space for every five to ten pigs. A typical 180- to 200-head hoop structure has two or three 12-hole self-feeders and one, four-hole no-freeze waterer. In the summer, additional watering space is necessary and can be provided by one or more nipple waterers.

 

猪只管理

Managing the Pigs

 

猪的生长性能。一般情况下,大棚猪舍的采食量比封闭式猪舍的采食量高,特别是在冬季。冬季所需额外饲料量因猪场、气候和季节极端情况而不同。通常情况下,在第一、二次使用大棚猪舍时,生产者可提与封闭式猪舍饲养的猪所需的同等量的饲料,待出现明显的采食量增加时,再进行调节。有些生产者会开始根据营养密度调整日粮,期望提高采食量。在冬天,估计每增加一磅活体重需要多采食0.3磅饲料,或者说比封闭式猪舍多10%的饲料。在夏季,估计大棚猪舍所需饲料量不会有差别,或者每增加一磅活体重需要多采食0.1磅饲料。全年综合来说,在大棚猪舍中,估计每增加一磅活体重需要多采食0.2磅饲料。

Pig performance. Feed intake is often more in hoops than confinement, particularly in the winter. The amount of additional winter feed varies between farms, climate, and seasonal extremes. Typically, for the first one or two uses of a hoop structure, the producer provides the same diet as for pigs in confinement buildings until a clear pattern of elevated feed intake emerges. Some producers are now beginning to adjust diets for nutrient density with an expectation of elevated feed intake. In winter, a good estimate is that 0.3 lb more feed will be needed per pound of live weight gain, or about 10% more feed as compared to confinement buildings. In the summer, a good estimate is that there will be no difference or a 0.1 lb more feed per lb of gain in hoop structures. For a yearly estimate, use 0.2 lb more feed per lb of gain in hoop structures.

 

根据冬季和夏季的经验,大棚猪舍饲养的猪比封闭式猪舍饲养的猪在第十肋处的背膘平均0.1英寸2.5毫米)日均增重方面,大棚猪舍和封闭式猪舍一样好,如果猪更健康的话,大棚猪舍日增重可能会更高。深层垫料和额外的活动空间对猪群的社交结构和行为产生积极影响。行为研究表明,大棚猪舍饲养的猪比封闭式猪舍饲养的猪更少表显现出应激环境下会产生的不良行为。大多数生产者的销售周期为三到四周。也就是说,从卖出第一猪到卖出最后一头猪需要三到四周的时间。180头猪里面会有大约5头猪达不到最低出栏重。这结果与封闭式猪舍是相似的

On the basis of experiences in both winter and summer, backfat is estimated to average 0.1 inch more at the tenth rib for pigs raised in hoop structures compared to pigs raised in confinement. Average daily gain for hoop-housed pigs is as good as that of confinement pigs and may be greater if the pigs are healthier. The deep bedding and additional floor space probably positively affect the social structure and behavior to allow for such a large group size. Behavior research has shown that hoop pigs exhibit fewer stereotypical behaviors that are signs of a stressful environment than confinement pigs. A majority of producers report a three to four-week marketing range. That is, the time from the sale of the first pig to the removal of the last pig is three to four weeks. With 180 pigs, this usually means that approximately five pigs do not reach minimum market weight. These results are similar to those obtained in confinement operations.

 

健康。大棚猪舍中的猪的健康状况总体良好。研究报告称,大棚猪舍中猪的死亡损失最小,通常比封闭式猪舍的死亡损失要低。呼吸系统的问题微乎其微。到目前为止,经验表明,许多品系的猪都能适应大棚猪舍大棚猪舍长期使用时,垫料下会聚集病原体。如果猪在进入设施之前没有驱虫或者本身不是无寄生虫的,那么长期以往,蛔虫可能成为一个健康问题。如果寄生虫问题,可以将一层土壤移走,换上一层添加石灰的新土壤。建议对体内和体外寄生虫采用常规监测程序。

Health. The health of pigs in hoop structures is generally good. Studies report that death loss has been minimal in hoop structures and is often lower than in confinement buildings. Respiratory problems have been minimal. To date, experiences have shown that a wide variety of pig genetics are adaptable to hoop structures. Pathogens could build up in the dirt floor under the bedded pack with long-term use. Roundworms can be an additional long-term health management concern if the pigs are not wormed or parasite free before entering the facility. If parasites become a concern, a layer of soil can be removed and replaced with a new layer with lime added. A routine monitoring program for both external and internal parasites is recommended.

 

猪的转移和管理。由于猪是大群生活在有垫料的猪舍内,因此,经常巡栏,并查看每头猪的健康状况是很重要的。单在猪舍内浏览是很难看到每头猪的情况的。生产者应该每天检查猪群。为了方便转移猪只,大棚猪舍的栏门必须要便于使用并且能帮助把猪分群

Pig handling and management. Because the pigs are in a large group in a bedded setting, it is important to walk through them frequently to check the health status of each pig. It is very difficult to check all of the pigs by looking into the structure. Producers should check their pigs daily. To facilitate animal handling, a hoop structure needs to have a good gating system with some type of sorting area.

 

栏门的设计必须能:

The gating system must be able to:

• 卖猪时便于分群

Sort animals for market.

• 能关闭尚不出售的猪。

Hold back smaller animals not going to market.

• 将生病的其他猪群分开。由于大棚猪舍的布局和猪群规模较大, 对猪的识别、转移/治疗可能比较困难。

Separate sick animals from the larger group. Because of the layout of hoop structures and large group sizes, identifying, removing, and/or treating sick animals can be difficult.

 

有些情况下,可以在已有的混凝土台旁边建造大棚猪舍,把这个混凝土台用作分群使用。而有的情况下就必须额外投资,再修建一个用于分群的区域。据生产者说,在大棚猪舍饲养的猪,在所需设备设施充足的情况下,能很好的进行分群和装车。如果一个猪场有1-3个大棚猪舍,那么可移动的装猪台可以很好地提高出栏猪装车的效率。如果一个猪场有3个以上的大棚猪舍,那么固定的出猪设施则更可取。

In some instances, hoop structures have been constructed next to an existing concrete pad, and the existing pad has been used for sorting. In other instances, additional expense is necessary to construct a sorting area. Producers report that pigs from hoops sort and load well with adequate facilities. Portable loading chutes are effective for loading market animals if one to three hoop buildings are being used. If an operation has more than three hoop structures, a permanent loading facility is more efficient.

 

固体粪污的管理

Managing Solid Manure

 

在考虑大棚结构之前,必须仔细计划如何处理垫料及猪粪。必须有适当的设备来清除垫料以及猪粪的混合物。这些混合物如果不能直接施用于农田,那么就需要空间来储存。了解粪肥的营养成分对制定粪肥管理计划来说是非常重要的。由于大棚猪舍的垫料层比较干燥因此来自大棚猪舍的猪粪要比来自其他种类猪舍的半固态或液态猪粪的含量更高,而氮含量更低

Before considering a hoop structure, one must carefully plan on how to handle the bedded manure pack. The proper equipment to remove the manure resulting from the bedded pack must be available. If direct application to a field is not possible, then space to stockpile the manure is needed. Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for those who have developed a manure management plan for their fields. Because of the drier bedding from hoop structures, the manure will have a higher-carbon/lower-nitrogen status than manure from facilities with semisolid or liquid manure systems.

 

固体粪污的清理

Removing Solid Manure

 

从大棚猪舍清出来的垫料和猪粪混合物可以直接适用于田地里,或者储存起来供以后使用。一般来说,很少有专门的固体粪肥承运商,在此情况下,农场内就必须有粪肥撒播机、装载机和拖拉机用于粪肥运输和施用国中西部地区用玉米秸秆作为垫料。玉米秸秆作为垫料时并不容易处理,因为可能会缠绕在施肥机器上。一个普通的滑装载机可能不足以撕开大捆的玉米秸秆。

The manure/bedding mixture removed from the hoop structure is either directly spread on fields or stored for later use. Typically, there are few custom haulers available that will handle solid manure. If this is the case, a manure spreader, loader, and tractor must be available for on-farm usage. Corn stalks are often used in the midwest for bedding. Corn stalk bedding is not easily handled due to the potential for wrapping on manure spreader beaters. An ordinary skid-steer loader will probably not be sufficient to tear apart the pack for loading.

 

大多数生产者都认为,清理一个180-200头猪大棚猪舍并将垫料和猪粪施用在附近的农田上,所需的总劳动时间为10-15个小时。清理垫料的最佳设备是前端装载机上安装抓斗叉的变型四轮驱动拖拉机

Most producers agree on 10-15 hours of total labor to clean a hoop structure for 180-200 pigs and spread the material on nearby cropland. The best equipment to remove the bedding pack is a front-wheel assist tractor with a grapple fork attachment on the front-end loader.

 

垫料 Bedding

 

垫料是大棚猪舍成功的关键之一。生产者必须要明确有多少的土地可以用于提供农作物残体作为垫料,并且这些土地中又有多少必须用于提供垫料,才能满足猪场对垫料的需求。对于大棚猪舍,必须提供足够的垫料以保持垫料下的土壤相对干燥。猪在整个猪舍中会建立特定的排便区。一般情况下,冬季里,猪群会在猪舍的北端沿着木制的侧墙睡觉,而在垫料区和用于采食及饮水的混凝土区之间的区域里排便。在该区域可能需要额外的垫草,以防止排便区变得很脏乱。6展示了用于垫料的大圆形干草捆。

Bedding is one of the keys to the success of hoop structures. The producer must determine how many acres are available to provide residue for bedding and then decide how many of those acres must be harvested to meet bedding needs. Enough bedding must be provided to keep the soil under the bedding pack relatively dry. Pigs establish certain dunging areas throughout the structure. Many times, winter groups will sleep in the north end and along the wooden sidewalls and dung in the space between the bedding area and the concrete slab used for feeding and watering. Additional bedding may be required in that area to prevent the dunging area from becoming sloppy. Large round bales used for bedding are shown in Figure 6.

 

6:用于垫料的大圆干草捆。生长-育肥舍。

Figure 6: Large round bales used for bedding. Source: Based on Figure 13, Hoop Structures for Grow-finish Swine, AED41.

可用作垫料的材料有好几种,但用的最多的还是大捆的玉米秸秆。3列出了其他可用作垫料使用的材料,并列出了所需的大致用量。有些情况下,大棚猪舍是建在已有的混凝土区域旁边,而这个混凝土区域被用作猪群分群使用。在其他情况下,需要额外的投入修建一个分区域。生产者说,在大棚猪舍饲养的猪,在所需设备设施充足的情况下,能很好的进行分群和装车。如果一个猪场有1-3个大棚猪舍,那么可移动的装猪台可以很好地提高出栏猪装车的效率。如果一个猪场有3个以上的大棚猪舍,那么固定的出猪设施则更可取。

Several materials have been used successfully for bedding although most experiences have been with baled corn-stalks. Table 3 lists other products that can be used, along with the approximate amount of bedding needed. In some instances, hoop structures have been constructed next to an existing concrete pad, and the existing pad has been used for sorting. In other instances, additional expense is necessary to construct a sorting area. Producers report that pigs from hoops sort and load well with adequate facilities. Portable loading chutes are effective for loading market animals if one to three hoop buildings are being used. If an operation has more than three hoop structures, a permanent loading facility is more efficient.

 

3大棚猪舍所需的垫料量。生长-育肥猪。

Table 3: Estimated amount of bedding needed for pigs in a hoop structure. Source: Table 2, Hoop Structures for Grow-Finish Swine, AED-41.

 

水土保持。某些高度易侵蚀的土地上,农作物残体需要留在田地里覆盖土壤以防止水土流失,因此在这些地区,收获玉米或豆类秸秆作为垫料可能不是一个可行的选择。

Soil conservation. In regions where residue cover is required on highly erodible lands, the harvesting of corn or bean stalks may not be a viable option.

 

秸秆捆每吨玉米秸秆打捆、运输和储存的费用约为10-20美元(人民币70-140元)秸秆运输会产生额外的费用。在农场内打捆,虽然需要的付现费用较少,但并不是一个低成本的选择。此外,秸秆打捆比普通干草打捆更容易磨损圆形打捆机

Custom baling. As indicated above, baling, transporting, and storing corn stalks may cost $10-20 per ton. Additional costs are incurred in transporting bales. On-farm baling, while requiring less out-of-pocket expense, is not a low-cost option. Additionally, stalk-baling results in more wear on round balers than does normal hay baling.

 

垫料的可获得性若秋季阴雨不断,或者降雪太早使得秸秆无法及时捆,那么作为垫草的秸秆可能就不太容易获取,并且价格也会更高。在这种情况下,可能需要将收获农作物的优先顺序调节一下,需要先收获秸秆并大捆,然后再进行农作物收获的相关事宜

Bedding availability. When a wet fall or early snow prevents stalks from being baled in a timely manner, they may become less available and more costly. A situation of this type could require a shift in priorities from doing all of the grain harvesting first to a system of harvesting and baling stalks.

 

垫料存储。在秋季打并在春季前使用的垫料如果储存在室外一般不会变质。然而,如果要经历春季和夏季储存必须做好保护措施,以防止质量下降。在春季和夏季使用的秸秆捆应储存在排水良好并且有遮盖物的地方。在室外储存的秸秆捆质量会变差,从而增加成本。

Bedding storage. Bedding baled in the fall and used before the spring generally does not deteriorate if stored outside. However, if stored into the spring and summer, bedding must be protected to prevent reduction in quality. Bales that will be used during spring and summer should be stored under cover on a well-drained area. Bales stored outdoors will lose bedding quality, thereby increasing costs. 

 

固体粪污的储存

Storing Solid Manure

 

直接撒到地里的猪粪的储存要求是最低的,如果固体粪便要先储存后使用,那么就必须设计一个安全储存粪肥的空间。了解要储存的粪肥的量对于正确设计储存区域是必要的。

If manure is applied directly to the fields, storage requirements are minimal, but if solid manure is stored after cleaning, then designing a space to safely stockpile the manure is necessary. Knowing the amount of manure to be stockpiled is necessary to properly design the storage area.

 

由于粪肥是从大棚猪舍中直接清理出来的,垫料和猪粪混合物的结块形态不一,所以很难预测粪肥能为农作物提供什么样的养分如果把粪肥储存起来,那么不管储存时间长短,都有可能出现堆肥,能将粪肥的体积减少三分之一到二分之一,并在田间施用前使养分稳定。如果将这些猪粪和垫草混合物堆成大约6英尺高、12英尺宽1.8米高,3.6米宽)料堆,就会形成堆肥,并且所需的管理是最少的。

As it comes directly out of the hoop structure, the high degree of variability in the bedded pack makes it difficult to predict manure nutrient contributions to crop fertilization needs. Composting is likely to occur if the manure is stored for any length of time and will provide volume reduction of one-third to one-half and nutrient stabilization prior to field application. Such composting will occur with minimal management if the material is piled in windrows about 6 ft high and 12 ft wide.

 

垫料和猪粪的混合物很容易形成堆肥。在做料堆时,可以很容易把混合物进一步混合,以达到高度的质地均一性。在料堆的底部放置一层干燥的材料,然后湿层和干层交替放置对料堆的翻动和混合有助于体积和重量的减少,但同时也会因氨挥发而造成更多的氮流失。建议与当地的合作推广服务处联系,了解堆肥事宜。

The bedding pack composts well. Mixing the material to achieve a higher degree of uniformity can be easily accomplished while building the pile. Place dryer material at the bottom of the pile, and alternate wet and dry layers. Additional mixing, as would occur during turned windrow composting, may offer a benefit in terms of volume and weight reduction, but will also result in more nitrogen loss through ammonia volatilization. Contact your local Cooperative Extension Service for recommendations on composting manure.

 

储存期间氮的逸出也是一个比较令人关切的问题,特别是在高降雨期间。在大多数州,环境控制机构担心雨水径流的势态检查粪肥储存区域。混凝土隔间储存粪肥是一种有效的管理工具,地基更坚实,使粪肥更容易清除,并且可以做雨水径流的安全设计。

There is some concern about nitrogen leaching from storage, especially during high rainfall. In most states, environmental control agencies are concerned about runoff potential and will inspect areas designated for manure storage. Storing manure on a concrete pad can be an effective management tool that will provide a solid base to make manure removal easier and can be designed to safely control runoff from the area.

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