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养猪繁殖研讨会第十一讲问题解答

来源:养猪繁殖研讨会 2021-07-21 16:40:31| 查看:

  第十一讲 - 公猪站和精液管理 问题解答
  
  做为网课互动交流的一部分,我们尽量为大家解答网课期间大家提出的一些问题。 由上海卡苏生物技术有限公司冠名赞助的第十一次网课 - 公猪站和精液管理一讲, 收到线上很多问题, 这里给大家提供解答,仅供参考。答案部分为英文原文, 也给大家提供一个学习语言的机会。
  
  1.公猪采的原精扎堆和部分死精,稀释后保存三天死精严重。
  
  Someboars are more prone to agglutination than others. However, if there areseveral boars with agglutinated semen then it’s important to check forbacterial contamination in the semen doses. Ask a laboratory to culture sampleson d 1 and then again d 4 to identify the presence and species of bacteriapresent. Also test water and extender samples routinely.
  
  2.公猪的使用年限一般多少月龄是合适的?用五年的话,标准要达到什么样
  
  Ageis not as important as index or semen quality. As long as the index meets yourthreshold and semen quality is good you can continue to use the boar.
  
  3. 像现在夏天了,恒温箱17度,但是拿了精液后,恒温箱温度变成22度及以上,这样对精液质量影响大吗?
  
  Yes.Fluctuations of 2C (or more) can damage sperm cell structure and function.
  
  4.咱们小猪场有必要自己养公猪吗?多大规模的建议养公猪?
  
  This is dependent on your farm goals and what you want to achieve. Take intoconsideration: space and labor to collect boars versus distance and frequencyof receiving semen from a stud; technical equipment needed to evaluate semen;genetic progress of using boars versus replacement rates at a boar stud, etc.
  
  5. 一般是自养公猪好还是直接去公猪站买精液好
  
  It depends on how much value is placed on genetic indexand progress. Studs typically turn boars more quickly than what sow farms areable to achieve. Please see additional comments above.
  
  6. 精子少,活力差,精液有臭味,有法子吗?
  
  Itdepends on the type of smell and if there is color to the semen. If it’s brown,that could indicate an infection (Vesiculitis). Some boars recover with restwhile others may need antibiotic treatment. Additional information would beneeded to make a recommendation.
  
  7.公猪料有什么特别的吗
  
  Yes.We want to avoid diets with DDGs and wheat midds and include at least 5% fiber.Vitamins and minerals are crucial to semen production, such as Ca++,Phosphorus, Selenium and Zinc.
  
  8.把精液涂在母猪鼻孔上有没有诱情的作用
  
  There’sbeen a lot of research on using pheromone sprays on sows to induce estrus withmixed or inconclusive results. The reason for this is because it takes acombination of stimuli – physical, visual and olfactory – for the sow torespond. I’m not aware of a benefit of directly applying semen to their nose.
  
  9. 新买的公猪,人家调教好的,精液检测正常,回来喂了几天突然死精什么原因,怎么治疗
  
  Ifthe boars had good semen previously, check the consumables (i.e. gloves) thatare used to collect and process semen to ensure there’s not an issue withtoxicity. Also, check that the extender is mixed appropriately by checking theosmolality.
  
  10.配种的时候,精液里面可以放一支缩宫素吗?放了缩宫素是不是下的仔多
  
  Data suggests an inconsistent and variable response tothe addition of oxytocin.
  
  11.公猪一般多大开始调教?
  
  For most terminal boars, training can start when theyenter isolation, around 7 months of age.
  
  12.有什么好的公猪调教方法?
  
  When training a new group, have an older boar mount the dummy first so thedummy has the scent of that boar. Also pour the semen from that boar on thedummy prior to working with the younger boars. On the first day of training,consider using PGF2 alpha to increase libido. On the second day of train try toget the boars to mount the dummy without using PGF2 alpha.
  
  13.   通过精液传播的疫病都有哪些?怎么防备?
  
  There’sa good paper that reviews this by D. Maes. We primarily worry about PRRS. DailyPRRS PCR testing is done on 25% of the boars in stud every collection day andconfirmed negative prior to the sow farms using the semen.
  
  14.猪舍温度超过多少度会影响精液活力
  
  Heat stress starts to occur around 82°F or 27.8°C but the level of humidity also impact semen quality.
  
  15.各位老师好我有个问题向您们请教  从3月底开始我们出现精液保存时间短的问题,一般只能保存2-3天。
  
  Ifmotility has drastically declined, the first step is to check and see if thereis any bacteria in the doses. Some bacteria species, like Serratia Marcescens, doesn’t show up until d 3 or 4 when it doublesevery 12 hours. After d 3 or 4, you’ll see a decrease in motility and increasein agglutination.
  
  16.通过显微镜观察精子主要是出现打团现象,一般第三天开始打团.先是2个正常活精子粘在一起,慢慢的越集越多。我们前期排除稀释粉、纯净水、精液袋、17度恒温冰箱、精液生产操作流程。唯一没有排除的就是我们的公猪,可能是我们公猪感染了蓝耳,因为我们精液出问题跟公猪感染蓝耳的时间是一致的。如果真的是公猪感染蓝耳引起的,现目前除了给公猪打了蓝耳灭活苗外,只做了营养保健,每天雅士勇15ml、种猪喜乐7g。现目前精液多数能保存3天,一部分能保存5-6天,一两个能保存7天。那么我们现在还应该采取什么措施,一般精液多久能恢复正常.
  
  It sounds like one item that hasn’t been evaluated is bacteria. Have a labculture doses for bacteria and identify what species are present. There aremany types of spermicidal bacteria but I’d specifically see if SerratiaMarcescens is present. That would explain part of the storage issue. Not allboars or pools will be equally affected – which may explain why some semen isokay at longer storage periods.
  
  17.有的公猪精液用小瓶装,有的用袋装,为什么呢?
  
  Thisis based on personal preference at the sow farm and efficiency at the studs.Individual tubes or bags help with consistent sperm per dose. Using a bulk bagis more efficient because it can hold ~35+ doses but if not handledappropriately not all doses will contain the same number of sperm.
  
  18. 精液解冻速度是每分钟2-3℃吗?
  
  It’s much quicker and it depends on the protocol being used. Typciallyit’s thawed in 20 seconds.
  
  19.夏季公猪精液中出现杂质、密度低如何解决
  
  I’mnot quite sure what is meant by impurities. For boars with low ejaculate concentration, take a look at diet, feedintake, water intake and collection frequency.
  
  20.   公猪热应激后有什么补救措施
  
  Do asmuch as possible to providing a cooling mechanism – evaporative cooling system,testicle drippers, etc.
  
  21.公猪精液长途运输要求恒温,主要怎么来包装控制。如果需要用到相关设备,这个运输设备如何在猪场内消毒重复利用
  
  If semen is shipped via a commercial shipper, ensure semen in packed indouble Styrofoam coolers with frozen packs in between the cooler (not next tothe semen) when the weather is hot. High/low thermometers or data loggers canbe place in the coolers but those should not come back to the stud forbiosecurity reasons. For semen that is driven by a courier in a car, loggerscan be used in the coolers and then the courier can download the data onto atablet for uploading to a central data location.
  
  22. 冻精和鲜精密度多少合适
  
  We typically don’t measure density. Target sperm per dose for frozen instudies is around 2.5 to 3 billion motile. Fresh ranges from 1.5 to 3 billionsperm per dose, or 30 to 40 mil/mL.
  
  23. 人工采精转为自动采如何过渡
  
  Have collection technicians watch videos with the steps on automaticcollection. Try to train young boars on the automatic system as they come intothe stud. Older boars will be harder to train.
  
  24. 公猪睾丸炎怎样预防和治疗
  
  It depends on the cause of the inflammation. That should be determinedfirst. Is it related to an injury (caught in back gating or slates) or is itrelated to an infection?
  
  25. 公猪的睾丸在环境温度高时会变大和下垂吗
  
  Not that I’m aware of – at leastnot in the upper 80s to 90F.
  
  26.   公猪使用年限大概范围是多大月龄?公猪淘汰依据有哪些?
  
  What are the criteria for culling boars? Age isn’t a driving factor.Criteria include index, semen quality, structure, untrainable (to mount thedummy).
  
  27.公猪的蹄夹有裂缝是什么原因造成的
  
  Thiscould be a nutritional deficiency or related to the environment. If barn floorsare constantly being washed or urine isn’t draining then the feet will staywet, which can cause cracking.
  
  28.公猪睾丸下垂还能否正常采精使用
  
  Yes.Testicles that are further away from the body will do a better job of coolingand maintaining a temperature conducive to sperm quality.
  
  29. 公猪是否需要定期运动和定期与母猪接触?
  
  Theydo not need contact with sows regularly but do need to be collected regularly –1x per week – even if the semen isn’t needed. If the labor is available,exercise doesn’t hurt but I’ve not seen any data suggesting it’s necessary.Boars should be kept in a body condition score of 3 (scale 1 to 5).
 

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