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怎么给猪配种,配种管理指南(完结)

来源:猪译馆 2020-05-26 15:18:38| 查看:

 

前言

前言 Foreword

丹育猪以高产著名于世,但由于猪场建设、饲养管理等诸多方面的挑战,让丹育猪在中国的生产性能未能达到预期,但丹育种猪在中国养猪业的受青睐程度仍越来越高。猪译馆特收集整理了一系列丹育相关资料,目前正在转载由喜肉科技携手英联饲料和华扬种猪联合推出的丹麦养猪研究中心制作的丹育《配种管理手册》,敬请关注。

 

编者的话 Editor's Note

配种是新一轮生产的开始,配种质量会直接影响受胎率、分娩率、产仔数、断奶数等一系列关键的KPI。因此配种舍的正确管理有助于提高和维持母猪高产、稳产。本手册详细讲解了不同生产模式下查情和配种的各种技巧,其中很多章节图文并茂可以直接作为SOP使用。

 

22配种方案

MATING STRATEGY GILTS 

22.1

22.1最佳的配种方案

Optimal Mating Strategy

 

后备母猪在第二次发情时配种,至少7.5月龄。

The gilt is mated in her second heat, with a minimum of 7.5 months of age.

 

后备母猪要在预期交配前的7-14天进行短期优饲。

Gilts should be flflushed 7-14 days before anticipated mating.

 

 后备母猪授精时,安静的环境有利于出现静立反射。后备母猪要在限位栏或小的稳定群体中授精。

When gilts are inseminated, they must have calm around them to show standing heat. The gilt isinseminated in a box or in small stable groups.

 

 授精时,后备母猪要和公猪进行口鼻接触,并通过发情鉴定的“5个要点”来刺激发情。

By insemination the gilts must have snout contact with the boar and the heat must be found with the5-point plan.

 

后备母猪要间隔12个小时复/重配。

Gilts should be mated with an interval of 12 hours.

 

配种或人工授精后,后备母猪要保持安静。

After mating or artifificial insemination the gilts must have peace. 

缺乏对后备母猪群的管理会导致配种超前。

Lack of control of the gilt pool can lead to mating of gilts before they reach the optimum age.

22.2

 

22.2配种方案的缺陷

Traps In The Mating Strategy

 

由于缺少后备母猪,可能将太年轻的后备母猪配种(要大于7.5月龄)。

By lack of gilts, one could be tempted to mate the gilts too young (>7.5 months).

 

如果后备母猪的年龄未知,会有过早配种的风险。

If the age of the gilts is unknown, there is a risk that they are mated too young.

 

后备母猪年龄越大,发情迹象越不明显。

The older the gilts become, the weaker the heat signs.

 

如果不对后备母猪进行短期优饲,生产水平会下降。

The result degrades if it is not possible to flflush the gilts.

 

如果在授精时和授精后母猪表现不安,生产水平会较差。

Restlessness during and after insemination gives poorer results.

 

没有和公猪进行口鼻接触。

No snout contact to the boar.

 

缺乏发情鉴定和配种前的刺激。

Lack of care with heat control and stimulation.

 

如果配种工作是从断奶母猪开始的,则工作人员对之后后备母猪的发情鉴定的热情度会下降。

If the mating work starts with the weaned sows, the staffff doesn’t have the same enthusiasm forheat control with the gilts afterwards. 

22.3

 

22.3补充说明: 配种方案 –后备母猪

Additional Comments: Mating Strategy – Gilts 

 

若后备母猪在第二次发情时配种,总产仔数会增加一头。初配时后备母猪最好是7.5-9月龄。后备母猪在第三次发情时才配种,对窝产仔数也没有影响。建议初配时:

The gilt is mated in the second heat, since total born piglets’ increases with one piglet. The gilt should still preferably be between 7.5 and 9 months of age by fifirst mating. There is no decrease in litter size if the gilt is fifirstly mated in the third heat. It is recommended that the fifirst mating occurs:

 

后备母猪第二次发情。

In the gilts second heat.

 

7.5-9月龄。

At the age of 7.5 to 9 months.

 

体重130-140公斤。

With a weight of 130-140 kg.

 

后备母猪超过9月龄时,要在第一次观察到发情时就配种。

When the gilt is more than 9 months it must be mated in the fifirst observed heat.

 

对限饲的后备母猪要在配种前7-14天进行短期优饲(最少每天3.5-4个饲料单位),这能使母猪释放更多的卵子。切记配种后要根据体况,减少后备母猪的饲料量至2.5-2.8个饲料单位/天。

Gilts that have received restricted feeding should be flflushed 7 to 14 days before mating (min. 3.5-4 FU per day) it offffers more loosened eggs. Remember to decrease the gilts feed after mating to 2.5-2.8 FU depending on the body condition.

 

短期优饲提供了后备母猪配种时较好的能量平衡,这是对母猪繁殖来说最好的开始。只要观察到后备母猪的初次发情,就很容易准时地进行短期优饲。

Flushing gives the gilt a positive energy balance up to mating, which gives the best possible start for the animals’ reproduction. When the gilts fifirst heat is observed once, it is easy to flflush it at the right time.

 

由于大群体的后备母猪包括配种过的和处于繁殖周期不同阶段的后备母猪,所以在大群体中授精的后备母猪没有机会出现很好的静立反射。建议后备母猪要在限位栏或小的、稳定的群体中授精。关键是在授精时创造安静的环境,一个有效的方法是在公猪前面的通道对分离出的后备母猪进行授精。

Gilts that are inseminated in large groups get no rest to exercise standing heat, because in the group are gilts that are mated and gilts in various stages of the cycle. The recommendations are that the gilt should be inseminated in a box or in small stable groups where there is a stable hierarchy. The key is to create most calm during insemination. One possibility might be to isolate the gilts in the hallway in front of the boar.

 

当后备母猪在授精时,要能够看到、闻到、听到公猪并与公猪进行口鼻接触。这有助于刺激母猪并增加催产素的分泌。一次成功的发情鉴定“5个要点的实施,可以明确判断后备母猪是否发情。

The gilts should be able to see, smell, hear and be allowed snout contact with the boar when they arebeing inseminated. It helps stimulating the sow and increases the oxytocin secretion. A good 5 point plan means that there will be no doubt about whether the gilt is in heat or not.

 

由于后备母猪的发情期比经产母猪的短,所以建议两次配种之间最好间隔12个小时。如果达到24个小时的间隔,那么更多的后备母猪可能只能授精一次。如果两次授精不能间隔12个小时,最好的解决方法是上午上班后的第一件事和下午下班前的最后一件事都是给后备母猪授精。后备母猪在静立反射结束前均可授精。如果没有可用的精液或后备母猪很难出现静立反射,可以让公猪和它进行自然交配。

Since the gilts heat is shorter than the sows, it is advantageous to inseminate the gilt with 12-hourinterval. If it takes 24 hours in between, there will be more gilt, which can only be inseminated once. If it is not possible to obtain 12 hours between inseminations, it will be a solution to inseminate thegilts fifirst thing in the morning and the last thing before going home in the afternoon. The gilts shouldbe inseminated until they no longer exhibit shows standing heat. If there is no semen available or the gilt is hard to get in standing heat, it may be advantageous to let the boar mate her.

 

研究结果表明对年轻母猪而言,授精后保持安静对其有正面影响。后备母猪亦然。最佳做法是在配种后,让后备母猪在栏位内待2个小时。通过自然交配的经产母猪或后备母猪,可让它和公猪一起待2个小时。

It is shown that peace after insemination has a positive effffect in young sows. It is reasonable toassume that the effffect also will be positive for gilts. Best practice is to place the gilts in a box up to 2 hours after mating. By natural mating the sow or gilt is allowed to stay with the boar in the 2 hours.

完结...

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