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猪场产房怎么管理,产房管理手册(连载九)

来源:猪译馆 2020-04-09 13:52:08| 查看:

 

前言

前言 Foreword

丹育猪以高产著名于世,但由于猪场建设、饲养管理等诸多方面的挑战,让丹育猪在中国的生产性能未能达到预期,但丹育种猪在中国养猪业的受青睐程度仍越来越高。猪译馆特收集整理了一系列丹育相关资料,目前正在转载由喜肉科技携手英联饲料和华扬种猪联合推出的丹麦养猪研究中心制作的丹育《产房管理手册》,敬请关注。

编者的话 Editor's Note

产房是一个猪场生产的中心,从产奶断奶的母猪的质量会影响到上游配怀母猪的性能,而仔猪的质量也会影响下游保育和育肥的生产指标,因此正确的产房管理是做好整个生产管理的基础。本手册将对产房的各项工作进行详细的讲解,其中很多章节图文并茂可以直接作为SOP使用。

17 . 补铁,去势,断尾和磨牙

Iron, Castration, Tail Docking And Tooth Polishing 

17.1-2

17.1 给仔猪补铁有助于保证最佳的生长和健康。

Administration Of Iron To Piglets Helps Ensure Optimum Growth And Health.

1. 补铁应在仔猪一周龄内完成。

Administer iron within the rst week of life.

2. 可口服,也可以进行颈部或腹股沟注射补铁

Administer iron orally or by injecting it into the neck or groin.

3. 如果使用其它的产品,如粉状铁制剂,会很难确认所有的仔猪都获得充足的铁。

If other products are used, such as iron powder, it can be dicult to check that all piglets receive adequate amounts.

4. 如果使用饮水补充铁制剂,定期检查饮水器是否有堵塞物和水流量。有必要通过注射给一些仔猪补铁。缺铁会导致仔猪变得苍白。

If drinking iron is used, check drinkers regularly for blockage or dripping valves. It may be necessary to administer iron via injection to some piglets. A piglet turns pale in case of iron deciency.

 

17.2 在不麻醉的前提下,去势必须在仔猪2-7日龄内完成。为避免感染,应确保卫生状 况最佳

Castration Performed Without Anaesthesia Must Be Done Within The First 2 - 7 Days Of Life. Supreme Hygiene Is Essential To Avoid Infections.

1. 使用耳罩或耳塞

Use ear cups or ear plugs.

2. 每批猪之间或去势50头猪后,应更换刀片并消毒

Change blades on the castration knife routinely, for instance between each batch or after 50 piglets, and disinfect

3. 去势前或在去势过程中提供止痛药

Provide pain relief either before castration or at the same time as the castration procedure.

4. 将仔猪保定在适合操作的位置

Place the piglet in an appropriate the work position

5. 开一个尽可能小的刀口,挤出睾丸,在睾丸下方 0.5-1厘米处切断精索。

Cut as small openings as possible, squeeze out the testicles and cut the spermatic cord 0.5 - 1 cm below the testicle.

6. 检查肠管脱垂(腹股沟疝)。

Check for intestinal prolapse (inguinal hernia).

7. 尽快的轻轻地将仔猪放回产床。

Gently return the piglet to the pen as quickly as possible.

8. 使用之后清洗所有的去势工具。

Clean all castration tools after use.

17.3-4

 

17.3 一般而言,禁止断尾。

Routine Tail Docking Is Prohibited.

1. 如果有证明需要断尾,尽可能的少断,断尾的长度不可超过尾长的一半。断尾应在仔猪2-4日龄内完成。

If there is a documented need for tail docking, dock as little as possible - and no more than half - of the tail. Do this within the rst 2 - 4 days of life.

2. 加热断尾器,尾部是被烫掉的而不是被切掉的。

Heat the tail burner, so the tail is burned and not cut

3. 确保断尾切面全部焦化。

Make sure you burn the tail all the way through the tail.

4. 断尾后,检查一下烫的是否到位,不应流血

Check that the tail is burned correctly and that there is no bleeding.

5. 尽快将仔猪轻轻放回产床

Gently return the piglet to the pen as quickly as possible.

6. 使用后,清洗和消毒断尾器。

Clean and disinfect the tail burner after use.

 

17.4 常规来说磨牙是禁止的。正常的环境下是不需要磨牙的。

Routine Tooth Polishing Is Prohibited. Tooth Polishing Is Not Necessary Under Normal Circumstances.

1. 如果有证明需要磨牙,就磨掉猪犬齿。

If there is a documented need for tooth polishing, polish the outer canine teeth.

2. 注意不要伤害牙龈。

Be careful not to damage the gums.

3. 如果仔猪需要磨牙,则应在4日龄内完成

If the teeth require polishing, do so within the rst four days of life.

17.5-8

17.5 补充说明-补铁

Additonal Comments - Administration Of Lron

 

补铁

Administration of iron

 

仔猪出生三周后,其体重可达出生时的四倍,这意味着在这个时期仔猪要造出大量的血液。由于它们从母乳里获得的铁(大约1mg/天)远远不能满足仔猪对铁的需求(大约7mg/天),仔猪自身体内储存的铁(大约50mg)在仔猪出生大约1周 就基本被用尽。

Piglets’ weight quadruples in the rst three weeks after birth, which means that they have to form a vast amount of blood in this period. As their daily iron requirement (approx. 7 mg) is signicantly higher than what they receive through the sow milk (approx. 1 mg), the innate iron depot (approx. 50 mg) will be used after approx. 1 week.

 

建议采用注射法或口服法来补铁,以确保所有仔猪都获得铁。

It is recommended to inject iron or administer it orally to ensure that all piglets get iron.

 

如果卫生水平不够高,仔猪患关节炎的风险会明显增加。

The risk of arthritis increases signicantly if the level of hygiene is not suciently high.

 

若采用粉状铁制剂,需要多补充几天。仔猪苍白预示着铁制剂供应量太低。如将液态铁制剂以营养补充剂的形式供给,要确保仔猪摄入充足的以母乳形式供给的液体。

Iron powder must be administered over several days. Pale piglets may be an indication that iron supply is too low. If drinking iron is used in the form of supplementary feed, ensure that the piglets have sucient access to uid in the form of sow milk。

17.6 补充说明-去势

Additional Comments – Castration

去势

Castration

 

去势过程中,声音的分贝已经超过了法律允许的范围,因此工作时员工需要戴上耳罩。

The sound level during castration exceeds the legal limit, and ear defenders are therefore necessary.

 

每次去势后,使用的工具都应该用热水清洗并用酒精消毒。这样可以防止由不良卫生状况引起的感染和腹股沟脓肿的发生。参见29-产房中的基本法定要求

It is essential to keep the tools clean by cleaning them in hot water and disinfecting them in spirits between each castration. This helps prevent infections and inguinal abscesses, which are often caused by poor hygiene. See 29 - Essential statutory requirements to the farrowing facility

 

200961日起,丹麦在去势过程中强制执行使用止痛药的规定。在去势时或去势前(最多1小时)在耳后注射止痛药。止痛药需兽医开处方

A requirement for pain relief during castration came into force on June 1, 2009. Treatment must be administered via injection behind the ear either at the same time as castration or before castration (max. 60 minutes before). Pain relief drugs are prescribed by the vet.

 

2-7日龄内尽早的给仔猪去势。只允许受过训练的和有经验的员工进行去势操作。7日龄后仔猪去势必须由兽医执行,并且需要长时间止痛

Castrate piglets as early as possible within the rst 2-7 days of their life. Only staff trained and experienced in castration is allowed to perform the procedure. Castration after day 7 of the piglets life must be performed by a vet, and must be performed under prolonged analgesia.

 

开的刀口越小,感染的风险就越低。注意精索只有切断才合法。与扯断精索相比,切断精索仔猪的死亡率更低

The smaller the opening, the lower the risk of infection. Note that it is only legal to CUT the spermatic cord. Mortality is signicantly lower among male piglets compared with male piglets that have had the spermatic cord torn.

 

去势时,避免发生肠管脱垂。如果肠管脱垂:肠管通过去势刀口脱垂,则淘汰此仔猪。如果肠管在体内脱垂形成腹股沟疝,密切观察该仔猪,如果疝长太大,则淘汰此仔猪。

During castration, intestinal prolapse should be avoided. If it happens:  Intestinal prolapse through the castration hole: destroy the piglet.  Intestinal prolapse inside the skin (hernia / inguinal hernia): closely observe the piglet afterwards. If the hernia grows too big, destroy the piglet.

 

尽快将仔猪放回栏内以避免对仔猪造成应激。如果仔猪未被轻轻地放回栏内会增加死亡率。

Return the piglet to the pen as quickly as possible to avoid stressing the piglet. Mortality increases if the piglets are not returned gently to the pen.

 

更多关于清洁的信息,参见下面断尾部分的内容

For more information on cleaning, see the section below on tail docking.

 

17.7 补充说明-断尾

Additional Comments - Tail Docking

断尾

Tail docking

 

实施断尾可能是必须的。如果断尾是在不麻醉的 情况下进行的,应在仔猪2-4日龄内完成,且断尾的长度不能超过一半。(参见29-产房中的基本法 定要求)。

It may be necessary to dock piglets’ tails. If tail docking is performed without anaesthesia, it must be done within the rst 2-4 days of the piglets’ lives and no more than half of the tail must be docked. See 29 - Essential statutory requirements to the farrowing facility.

 

用电或煤气来加热烫尾器。在刀片不够锋利的时候更换刀片---确保有备用的刀片。保持刀片的 清洁以确保烫尾器功能正常。

Use electricity or gas to heat the burner. Change knives when the blades are no longer sharp - make sure to have spare knives ready. Keep the knife clean to ensure an optimum function of the burner.

 

不要操作太急以致撕断尾巴。

Do not be so busy that you have to pull/tear the last piece of the tail.

 

尾巴流血容易导致感染疾病,通过尾关节、沿着脊髓,最终蔓延至大脑。

A bleeding tail is a portal of entry for infections in joints, along the spine and in the brain.

 

没有进一步的注释

No further comments.

 

断尾的过程必须要保持清洁卫生,以免发生脑部和尾部的炎症或关节炎。因此必须保持工具洁净。用硬刷子来清洗刀具。

Tail docking must be hygienic to avoid inammation of the brain and tail or arthritis. Therefore keep the tools clean. Use a stiff brush to clean the knife. 

17.8 补充说明-磨牙

Additional Comments - Tooth Polishing

磨牙

Tooth polishing

 

对仔猪进行磨牙处理,可以避免仔猪咬伤同窝仔猪和划伤母猪的乳房。剪牙是违法的。参见29-产房中的基本法定要求。

It may be necessary to polish a piglets teeth to protect litter mates and the sows udder from being scratched by their sharp canine teeth. It is illegal to clip piglets’ teeth. See 29 - Essential statutory requirements to the farrowing facility.

 

如果磨得太多或损害了牙龈,仔猪感染疾病的风险会增大,如关节炎、败血症。

If too much is polished or the gums are damaged, the piglets have an increased risk of contracting arthitis or blood poisoning.

 

参见29-产房中的基本法定要求。

See 29 - Essential statutory requirements to the farrowing facility.

18 .产奶量

MILK  YIELD

18.1

一大窝生长仔猪需要大量的奶水。可通过以下方法来提高母猪的产奶量:

A Large Litter Of Growing Piglets Require Much Milk. A High Milk Yield Can Be Obtained Through:

1. 最大限度的供应饮水。

Maximum supply of water

2. 最佳的采食量。

Optimum feed intake.

3. 最优的饲料组成

Optimum composition of feed.

4. 健康的母猪

A healthy sow.

5. 强壮和健康的仔猪

Large, healthy piglets.

6. 调节温度,确保产房内最适宜的温度。

Correct temperature in the facility.

7. 安静的环境

Calm environment for the sow.

8. 固定的乳头顺序

Stable teat order

9. 状态维持良好的乳房

A well-maintained udder.

10. 设计合理的产床

A good pen design

好的乳房和大、健康、营养良好的仔猪

Trimmed udder with a litter of large,  healthy and well-nourished piglets

18.2

产奶量低的后果

Consequences Of A Low Milk Yield

1. 仔猪发育不良。

Unthrifty piglets.

2. 死亡率增加。

Increased mortality rates.

3. 断奶重低。

Low weaning weight.

4. 对母猪潜能的利用不高。

Poor utilization of the sows’ potential

5. 增加寄养母猪的数量。

Increased need for foster sows.

6. 增加仔猪患病的风险。

Increased risk of disease among piglets

 

仔猪正在松弛的乳房处寻找乳头

A slack udder with piglets searching for the udder

  

 

正在找奶吃的饥饿仔猪

The piglets are hungry and are searching for milk by the sow

18.3

补充说明-产奶

Additional Comments - Milk Yield

 

母猪的产奶高峰一般是在分娩后的三周左右 12-16L /天),之后逐渐下降。仔猪三周龄后,开始采食更多的干料或液态料。

Milk yield peaks around three weeks post-farrowing (12 - 16 litre milk/day) after which it slowly drops. When piglets are three weeks old, they start to eat more dry feed or gruel feed.

 

饮水不足会降低母猪的采食量。泌乳期母猪的需水量变化很大,在泌乳高峰时,母猪每天需要的水量为35L-50L

An insucient water intake reduces the sows feed intake. The water requirement of sows during lactation varies from 35 litres a day to 50 litres a day when milk yield peaks.

 

泌乳期的采食量受饮水量、舍内温度和母猪健康状况的影响。更多关于泌乳期采食量的信息,参19-母猪的饲喂 -液态饲料或20- 母猪的饲喂 干料和 21-分娩后个体母猪喂料量的调整

Feed intake during lactation is aected by water intake, temperature in the facility and the animals’ general health. For more information on feed intake during lactation, see 19 - Feeding of sows - Liquid feed or 20 - Feeding of sows - Dry feed and 21 - Individual adjustment of the sows feed dose after farrowing.

 

联系猪场营养顾问。

Contact your pig feed advisor.

 

正常分娩的母猪已经具备了高产奶量的先决条件,因为她能迅速获得产奶的能量。病猪的疼痛(如乳房炎)会减弱她躺下并哺乳仔猪的意愿。健康母猪可能会患有乳房水肿。参见15母猪的疾病及治疗。乳房水肿降低了母猪躺下和哺乳仔猪的意愿。密切监视母猪很重要,尤其是刚分娩后。如果母猪生病,立即进行治疗以避免产奶量显著降低。母猪生病后的前天,产奶量可降低 20%。参见15 -母猪的疾病及治疗

A sow that has had a normal farrowing course has the best prerequisites for an optimum milk yield as it quickly gains energy for milk production. A sick sow may be in pain (for instance, mastitis) that reduce its will to lie down and nurse the piglets. Healthy sows may suer from udder oedema. See 15 - Disease and treatment of sows. Udder oedema reduces the sows will to lie down and nurse the piglets. It is important to monitor the sows closely, especially right after farrowing. If a sow becomes sick, treat it immediately to avoid signicant reductions in milk yield. The milk yield may drop by up to 20 % in the rst 6 days if the sow is sick. See 15 - Disease and treatment of sows.

 

健康、强壮的仔猪能够很快接近乳房,并能刺激乳房泌乳,使母猪一开始就有较好的产奶量。注意小的仔猪,检查其是否能刺激乳房泌乳。参见11-整窝交换

Large, healthy piglets quickly get to the udder and are capable of stimulating the udder to a good milk yield from the beginning. Therefore, be aware of piglets that are very small at birth and of whether they are capable of stimulating the udder to an optimum production. See 11 - Exchange of litters.

 

产房内的温度不能太高。母猪适宜的温度是 16-20°C或更低。如果温度过高,母猪试图浸在水中降温,也会表现为无精打采、采食很少或喘气。参见3-母猪的环境

The temperature in the facility must not be too high - the correct temperature for the sow is 16 - 20°C or below. If the temperature is too high, sows will try to cool themselves by wallowing with the water or be passive, eat  very little or pant. See 3  - The environment of the sows.

 

为了获得最大的泌乳量,在母猪周围工作时保持安静是非常重要的,甚至工作人员走近时,母猪会感觉更舒适。噪音或大声喧哗等应激会降低母猪哺育的意愿,也会影响仔猪对母猪哺乳召唤的敏感度。泌乳间隔通常是40分钟。由于泌乳反射只持续8-10秒,因此泌乳开始时保证乳房周围有所有仔猪躺卧的空间很重要

To obtain a maximum milk yield, it is important to work around the sows in a quiet and calm manner, and that the sows are comfortable with the staff tending to them. Stress around the sows in the form of noise or loud sounds may reduce their desire to nurse and may reduce the piglets’ ability to hear sows calling when milk letdown starts. Sows normally lactate with 40-minute intervals. It is important that there is room for all piglets by the udder when milk letdown begins as milk is only available for 8-10 seconds.

 

保持固定的乳头顺序非常重要,因此要避免在分 24-36小时后寄养。选择有较好泌乳量的母猪作 为第一或第二“奶妈”母猪。

It is important to maintain a stable teat order and thereby avoid cross-fostering more than 24-36 hours after farrowing. When making nurse sows or intermediate nurse sows, pick sows that already have a good milk yield.

 

母猪要确保有13-16个有效乳头。无效乳头过多、患慢性乳房炎或类似缺陷的母猪在断奶时要淘汰

The udder must be intact with 13 - 16 well-functioning teats. Sows with many non-functional teats, chronical mastitis or similar defects should be culled at weaning.

 

推荐的产床的限位栏长度是220-250厘米,含料槽上方到限位栏门的空间(内部测量)。产床的限位栏料槽端宽度大约为65厘米,并且在后端能调 整至90厘米。母猪乳房到产床一侧的距离应该可达一头仔猪的长度(56厘米),因为这可使仔猪保持安静并且延长泌乳时间。参见2—产床的功能性需要。将限位栏放置在产床中时,需确保母猪不管侧向哪边哺乳,乳房周围都有足够的空间

The recommended size of farrowing crates is 220 - 250 cm incl. room above the trough to the back of the gate to the crate (inside measurements). The crate should be approx. 65 cm wide by the trough and be adjustable to approx. 90 cm by the back gate. From the udder to the opposite pen side, there should be a piglet length (56 cm) as this makes the litter more calm and thereby prolongs milk letdown. See 2 - Functional requirements to the farrowing pen. When you place the crate in the pen, make sure there is plenty of room by the udder regardless of which side the sow nurses.

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